Indoor Cycle Power Training: cosa intendo quando parlo di allenamento con (ergo)trainer.

Pubblicato: settembre 14, 2010 in training
Tag:, , , , , , , , , , ,

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Avvertenze:
Quanto descritto non e’ inteso per il trattamento o la prevenzione di malattie, ne’ come sostituto di qualsiasi trattamento medico, ne’ come alternativa a consigli medici. La descrizione che segue è basata sulla rassegna di evidenze scientifiche ed è fornita solo a scopo informativo. I metodi esposti non devono essere adottati senza una completa presa in esame delle evidenze scientifiche fornite in appendice e una consultazione con un medico. Le linee guida di quanto esposto sono a solo rischio del praticante.

Vorrei condividere con Voi la mia esperienza circa l’uso strutturato di un Ergometro come ausilio alla preparazione ciclistica autunnale/invernale ed in generale per l’allenamento Indoor.
L’Ergometro da me usato è un Entry-Level della TACX e piu’ specificatamente il modello FLOW.

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Il FLOW, senza troppi fronzoli, permette di monitorare Potenza, Velocita’, Cadenza e Battito Cardiaco.
Le modalita’ operative sono due:
1) Slope-Mode in cui si imposta un dato livello di difficolta’ (da -4 a +9)
2) Power-Mode in cui viene impostata la potenza – ergotrainer mode.

La descrizione che segue è utile a ciclisti su strada, MTB bikers e triatleti
desiderosi di migliorare le loro performances.
In particolare i ciclisti possono seguire l’approccio descitto durante il tardo autunno, l’inverno e l’inizio primavera oppure in unione ai moduli di allenamento outdoor senza mutua interferenza o anche durante la stagione agonistica.. I triatleti possono beneficiare di blocchi di allenamento meglio organizzati e piu’ facili da gestire nel caso di eventi (ad esempio climatici) che possono concorrere al ritardo della preparazione.
La baseline è basata su un test di valutazione basato su un protocollo predittivo di Hawles-Noakes incentrato attorno la misura della Potenza di picco stimata con un ergotrainer (maggiori dettagli in Appendice 1).

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Dopo il test di valutazione formulo dei moduli di allenamento basati sulla filosofia esposta nel testo Training and Cycling with a Power Meter: libro di riferimento di Allen e Coggan (Appendice 2).
A compendio includo anche dei moduli di allenamento basati sul testo Performances Cycling di Morris gia’ recensito in questo blog (Appendice 3).
Quanto esposto e’ valido per i possessori dei seguenti modelli di ErgoTrainer:

TACX FLOW
Elite Trainer
Cycleops Trainer

e per il wattmetro a “misura indiretta”

iBike
con il firmware correttamente impostato per leggere le informazioni provenienti da postazioni stazionarie delel seguenti marche:
Elite
Kurt Kinetic
Cycleops

o simili.

Per l’allenamento outdoor personalmente uso un iBike (www.ibike-sports.com)

ma alternative piu’ valide (e meno economiche) esistono e sono note alla comunita’ ciclistica.

Le qualita’ su cui principalmente mi focalizzo nella stesura dei miei programmi sono:

Stamina
Endurance
Aumento della Forza Resistente
Potenza Massima Sostenibile (MSP)
Potenza fuori soglia e di picco (SMPO)
Tolleranza al Lattato
Miglioramento delle capacita’ di Sprinting and Leadouting.

Il protocollo di Hawley-Noakes che seguo per la valutazione iniziale (da ripetersi successivamente per valutare i miglioramenti) e’ sorprendentemente breve (al massimo 40..80min riscaldamento incluso).
I dati che ricavo dall’esecuzione del Protocollo: Potenza di Picco, Frequenza Cardiaca, Cadenza….vengono elaborati statisticamente basandomi su metastudi scientifici per estrarre le informazioni necessarie al progetto dei moduli.
I programmi che poi progetto sono volutamente brevi in durata allo scopo di avere la massima efficacia ed efficienza in modo da gestire al meglio la “fame di mancanza di tempo” che abbiamo.
Ogni modulo dura all’incirca dai 45 ai 70 minuti inclusivi di riscaldamento e defaticamento. In questo modo l’uso del “rullo” diventa meno noioso e sicuramente molto piu’ produttivo. Ovviamente quanto esposto puo’ essere esteso in termini di durata a seconda delle proprie esigenze specifiche.

Con le informazioni ricavate dal test di Hawley-Oakes sono in grado di formulare anche il Protocollo Fairchild ed addattarlo anche ad alcuni moduli descritti dal Carmichael Training System – CTS.

I moduli di allenamento su ergometro sono solito incastonarli anche con l’allenamento in palestra per aumentare inizialmente il pool di fibre a contrazione veloce FTFIIa e successivamente trasformarle con l’allenamento su trainer in fibre sempre a contrazione veloce, ma piu’ resistenti in termini di endurance FTFIIb. Questo consente in ultima analisi l’aumento del rapporto Peso/Potenza (che per un ciclista anche amatore non dovrebbe essere sotto 4, il mio e’ a 3.7 ma ci sto lavorando…. :-))) ).
Avere un ergotrainer consente tuttavia una grande varieta’ nella scelta di programmi, moduli e trials di valutazione; basta attingere dai risultati della ricerca nella Cycling Science….: McDougal and Lindsay (miglioramento della potenza massima Wmax e dell’efficienza del sistema glicolitico), Lindsay’s HIIT (per Time-Trial e Crono), Rodas’ HIIT (migliramento del VO2max), Laursen and Jenkins (per il VO2max, 40km crono)….

I protocolli HIIT sono validi anche per i seguaci della metodica UD2.0 di Lyle McDonald, primariamente incentrata sulla pratica del BodyBuilding ma adatta anche per triatleti e ciclisti.

In ultima analisi avere dei programmi strutturati consente di rendere l’esperienza con l’ergotrainer, meno noiosa, molto produttiva e facilmente rimappabile nel contesto outdoor che e’ quello che realmente conta.

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Appendix 1

Peak power output predicts maximal oxygen uptake and performance time in trained cyclists.

John A. Hawley1 and Timothy D. Noakes1
Liberty Life Chair of Exercise and Sports Science and the MRC/UCT Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit, Department of Physiology, University of Cape Town Medical School, Observatory, 7925, South Africa.

Summary The purposes of this study were firstly to determine the relationship between the peak power output (W peak) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) attained during a laboratory cycling test to exhaustion, and secondly to assess the relationship between W peak and times in a 20-km cycling trial. One hundred trained cyclists (54 men, 46 women) participated in the first part of this investigation. Each cyclist performed a minimum of one maximal test during which W max andVO2max were determined. For the second part of the study 19 cyclists completed a maximal test for the determination of W peak, and also a 20-km cycling time trial. Highly significant relationships were obtained between W peak andVO2max (r=0.97,P<0.0001) and between W peak and 20-km cycle time (r= –0.91,P<0.001). Thus, W peak explained 94% of the variance in measuredVO2max and 82% of the variability in cycle time over 20 km. We concluded that for trained cyclists, theVO2max can be accurately predicted from W peak, and that W peak is a valid predictor of 20-km cycle time.
Key words Cycling performance – Cycle ergometry – Maximal workload – Muscle power – Maximal oxygen uptake

Appendix 2

Training and Racing with a Power Meter
By Hunter Allen, Andrew Coggan;
Description
Power meters are rapidly becoming an invaluable part of training and racing among professional cyclists and triathletes, amateurs looking for a competitive edge, and gear fiends. For coaches and athletes, these devices offer enormous potential for targeting and timing training to realize a rider’s goals. Yet few athletes or coaches understand how to interpret the data for optimal results, and few do more than consider the possibility of wattage training. “Training and Racing with a Power Meter decrypts the layers of information and explains how to begin a program that effectively integrates power. Hunter Allen and Andrew Coggan have conducted extensive research and consulted with manufacturers to deliver the most sophisticated and scientific approach to training on the market, allowing riders to tap every last watt of power. The book includes cogent case studies, sample power workouts, and a chapter on the future of training and racing with these indispensable devices.

Review of Training and Racing with a Power Meter book.
Training and Racing with a Power Meter is written by Hunter Allen and Andrew Coggan as an introduction to power meter training and analyzing. It is easy-to-read language throughout the book and if you already know a thing or two about using a power meter, you will finish this book fast.

There is a detailed description on the different power meters on the market helping you decide which power meter is the right for you. I think this presentation is objective and quite useful for beginners. Thus, there are some pages you might skip if you already own a power meter. There is also a short intro to the main advantages by using a power meter. I agree with most of the words in these chapters.

There are some examples of workouts you can do with a power meter. The testing procedure to make a power profile and training programs are different from the ones I prefer, but it would be boring if all coaches ended up with the same training programs. There are some good basic principles in these programs and just like all other programs they should be modified individually. The major advantage is that it clearly shows beginners how to train with a power meter and also underlines the importance of post-training and post–races analysis.

The authors work closely together with TrainingPeaks which means that most analyzing refers to features in this software. This is logic but sometimes the book looks more like an extra manual to the software. When you look beside this, there is a great description of the features that TrainingPeaks offers.

Conclusion
This is a great introductory book about training and racing with a power meter for beginners. It is also a nice book for coaches who haven’t yet had the pleasure to work with athletes using SRM Cranks or PowerTaps, but want to know what power meter training is all about. This book shows you why power meters are getting so popular and gives you the initial tools to getting started racing and training with a power meter.

Appendix 3

Performance Cycling by David Morris
Performance Cycling is really directed for riders that have a power meter and while it tells how the programs can work just a heart rate monitor I have my doubts on how effective that would be. For those riders that have a power meter (I think if you don’t you should be making plans to get one) this book is far better then Cyclists Training Bible. This goes more into the Training Block concept of more harder and easier days, and is easier to incorporate at different parts in the year. Following this book gives more flexibility in the plan, but you need to understand the principles behind it.

There are also the usual sections on weight training (that he is a big promoter of), nutrition, testing, and ergogenic aids. There is some good info in all of these, but nothing in depth.

Performance Cycling is a very good book for the more experienced rider, and it can easily be used for some mid-season adjustments, or to try something different without having to start from scratch.

Training for Power, Endurance, and Speed

“When I was studying exercise physiology and racing bicycles as an undergraduate at the University of Missouri, I realized that a giant information gap existed between the scientists doing research on human performance and the athletes and coaches this research was designed to benefit. I wrote Performance Cycling to provide cyclists with better information about advances in training methods. My experiences conducting and reviewing research on cycling performance, competing as a road cyclist and mountain biker myself, and coaching cyclists of all abilities enable me to present this information from the combined perspectives of a scientist, athlete, and a coach. I think Performance Cycling is the most comprehensive and straightforward guide available for making cyclists’ bodies as strong as possible.”

– Dave Morris

Read what competitive cyclists are saying about Dave Morris and Performance Cycling:

“I want everyone to know that Dave Morris deserves much of the credit for my success.”

– Jane Quigley, 18-time National Champion, 9-time World Championship Medalist, 2-time Pan American Games Gold Medalist.

“Dave Morris is an innovator in the world of cycling . . . His training methods are what’s next to come in our sport.”

– Jon Retseck, 8-time National Champion.

“Dave has been coaching, racing, and riding for years, and really knows the ins and outs on why the body works the way it does.”

– Alison Dunlap, 2001 World Champion, 2-time Olympian

“Because of Dave’s years of experience and studies, this book will benefit anyone wanting to learn about the latest cycling research.”

– Mari Holden, 2000 World Champion, 2000 Olympic Silver Medalist.

Appendix 4

Document title
Rapid carbohydrate loading after a short bout of near maximal-intensity exercise
Author(s)
FAIRCHILD Timothy J. (1) ; FLETCHER Steve (1) ; STEELE Peter (1) ; GOODMAN Carmel (1) ; DAWSON Brian (1) ; FOURNIER Paul A. (1) ;
Author(s) Affiliation(s)
(1) Department of Human Movement and Exercise Science, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, AUSTRALIE
Abstract
Purpose: One limitation shared by all published carbohydrate-loading regimens is that 2-6 d are required for the attainment of supranormal muscle glycogen levels. Because high rates of glycogen resynthesis are reported during recovery from exercise of near-maximal intensity and that these rates could in theory allow muscle to attain supranormal glycogen levels in less than 24 h, the purpose of this study was to examine whether a combination of a short hout of high-intensity exercise with I d of a high-carbohydrate intake offers the basis for an improved carbohydrate-loading regimen. Methods: Seven endurance-trained athletes cycled for 150 s at 130% VO2peak followed by 30 s of all-out cycling. During the following 24 h, each subject was asked to ingest 12 gkg 1 of lean body mass (the equivalent of 10.3 gkg 1 body mass) of high-carbohydrate foods with a high glycemic index. Results: Muscle glycogen increased from preloading levels (± SE) of 109.1 ± 8.2 to 198.2 ± 13.1 mmolkg -1 wet weight within only 24 h, these levels being comparable to or higher than those reported by others over a 2- to 6-d regimen. Densitometric analysis of muscle sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff not only corroborated these findings but also indicated that after 24 h of high-carbohydrate intake, glycogen stores reached similar levels in Type I. IIa, and lib muscle fibers. Conclusion: This study shows that a combination of a short-term bout of high-intensity exercise followed by a high-carbohydrate intake enables athletes to attain supranormal muscle glycogen levels within only 24 h).

Appendix 5

The Ultimate Diet 2.0 by Lyle McDonald
The Ultimate Diet 2.0 represents both a very old and very new approach to the problems of dieting to low body fat percentages. It is old in that it builds upon an approach originally developed in the early 80’s by bodybuilding guru Dan Duchaine and researcher Michael Zumpano. It is new in that it applies the most cutting edge research to that plan, optimizing it to the greatest degree possible.

Topics include:

The evolutionary reasons why dieting to low body fat levels is so hard .

Calorie partitioning: where calories go when you eat them or come from when you diet.

The hidden metabolic advantages that elite athletes have, and how to duplicate them to improve your results.

Fat metabolism, how to optimize fat burning

Why stubborn fat is so stubborn and how to get rid of it

The basics of muscular growth and why so many different training systems can all be right.

An integrated 7 day cycle incorporating the most cutting edge research to allow maximal fat loss with no muscle loss (some may gain muscle). This includes a detailed description of diet, training, supplements and drugs for each day of the cycle.

Variants on the UD2 for different goals such as mass gains and endurance performance.

athletime@gmail.com

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