Archivio per la categoria ‘training’

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Calendarization is busy…. obviously… but recovering rate is ( at moment…..) good

Last Runs of the last three days

Pubblicato: dicembre 9, 2012 in training

roadrunning 7dec 2012 17 30

7 dec 2012

TrailRun 8dec2012 15 00

8 dec 2012

TrailRun della Fornace 9dec2012

9 dec 2012

Trial and Error 2012 Dec Train Modules

Pubblicato: dicembre 1, 2012 in training

TrainMod Des0001

TrainMod Des0002

TrainMod Des0003

Mind Maps of Late Fall Training Modules

Pubblicato: dicembre 1, 2012 in training

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mmap2

Snap 2012-11-18 at 10.53

 

Note: L’ eCanvas è una versione di SmartPhone disponible a partire dal 2019

Il coltello ceramico da Sushi con lame autoaffilanti e blister di ricambio all’elio liquido saranno disponibili a partire dal 2031.

FAT METABOLISM DURING EXERCISE

Pubblicato: novembre 17, 2012 in health, nutrition, training

Edward F. Coyle, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education
The University of Texas at Austin
Austin,Texas
Member, GSSI Sports Medicine Review Board

KEY POINTS
1. People store large amounts of body fat in the form of triglycerides within fat (adipose) tissue as well as within muscle fibers
(intramuscular triglycerides).When compared to carbohydrate stored as muscle glycogen, these fat stores are mobilized and oxidized
at relatively slow rates during exercise.
2. As exercise progresses from low to moderate intensity, e.g., 25-65% VO2max, the rate of fatty acid mobilization from adipose
tissue into blood plasma declines, whereas the rate of total fat oxidation increases due to a relatively large use of intramuscular
triglycerides. Intramuscular triglycerides also account for the characteristic increase in fat oxidation as a result of habitual
endurance-training programs.
3. Dietary carbohydrate intake has a large influence on fat mobilization and oxidation during exercise; when dietary carbohydrate
produces sufficient carbohydrate reserves in the body, carbohydrate becomes the preferred fuel during exercise. This is especially
important during intense exercise because only carbohydrate(not fat) can be mobilized and oxidized rapidly enough to
meet the energy requirements for intense muscular contractions.

Snap 2012-11-17 at 18.22

Eliminating Carbohydrate From theDiet of Endurance-Trained People

Recognizing that even smallamounts of dietary carbohydrate mightinfluence fat metabolism, a study was
performed by Phinney et al. (1983) duringwhich they fed endurance-trained
men a high-fat diet containing almostno carbohydrate, i.e., less than 20 g/d
for 4 wk. This diet reduced the concentrationof muscle glycogen by one-half,
and it markedly increased fat oxidation
during exercise at moderate intensitiesof 62-64% VO2max. However, the dietdid not increase the length of time that
exercise could be maintained, despitethe fact that fat oxidation was increased.Furthermore, these subjects were notcapable of exercising at higher intensities.
Even with this extreme diet, itseems clear that fat oxidation cannot beincreased sufficiently to fully replace
muscle glycogen as a source of energyfor intense exercise. Furthermore, high
fat intake is a risk factor for cardiovascularand other diseases.
Snap 2012-11-17 at 18.22Snap 2012-11-17 at 18.23Snap 2012-11-17 at 18.23

 

SUMMARY

People store large amounts of bodyfat in the form of triglyceride within
adipose tissue as well as within musclefibers. These stores must be mobilized
into FFA and transported to musclemitochondria for oxidation during exercise.
Fatty acids from adipose tissueare mobilized into plasma and carried
by albumin to muscle for oxidation. Asexercise intensity increases from low
(25% VO2max) to moderate (65%VO2max) to high (85% VO2max), plasma
FFA mobilization declines.However, total fat oxidation increases
when intensity increases from 25% to
65% VO2max, due to oxidation of intramusculartriglycerides, which provide
about one-half of the fat for oxidation.Endurance training characteristically
increases fat oxidation during moderateintensity exercise by accelerating the
oxidation of intramuscular triglyceridewithout increasing the mobilization or
oxidation of plasma FFA. Similarly,during low-intensity exercise with little
intramuscular triglyceride oxidation,the increased fat oxidation of trained
people does not appear to be caused byincreased mobilization of FFA into
plasma, but rather by a greater rate ofoxidation of the FFA removed from the
blood during exercise. Therefore, itseems that untrained people have
greater abilities to mobilize FFA thanthey do to oxidize it when they exercise
in the fasted state. Carbohydrate ingestionduring the hours before exercise,even in relatively small amounts,
reduces fat oxidation during exercise
largely through the action of insulin.Fat supplementation and special dietshave limited ability to increase fat oxidation
in people, especially duringsport competitions. Therefore, fat frombody stores and/or dietary supplementation
cannot adequately replace muscleglycogen and blood glucose as fuels for intense exercise.

References
Arner, P., E. Kriegholm, P. Engfeldt, and J. Bolinder (1990). Adrenergic regulation of lipolysis in situ at rest and during exercise. J. Clin. In vest.85:893-898.
Ballor, D.L., J.P. McCarthy and E.J. Wilterdink (1990). Exercise intensity does not affect the composition of diet- and exercise-induced body mass loss. Am J Clin Nutr 5.1:142-146.
Costill, D.F., E.F. Coyle, G. Dalsky, W. Evans, W. Fink, and D. Hoopes. (1977). Effects of elevated plasma FFA and insulin on muscle glycogen usage during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 43:
695-699.
Coyle, E.F., A.R. Coggan, M.K. Hemmert, R.C. Lowe, and T.J. Walters (1985). Substrate usage during prolonged exercise following a preexercise meal. J. Appl. Physiol.59:429-433.
Essen, B., L. Hagenfeldt, and L. Kaijser (1977). Utilization of blood-borne and intramuscular substrates during continuous and intermittent exercise in man. J. Physiol.265:489-506.
Hurley, B.F., P.M. Nemeth, W.H. Martin, J.M. Hagberg, G.P. Dalsky, and J.O. Holloszy (1986). Muscle triglyceride utilization during exercise: effect of training. J. Appl. Physiol.60:562-567.
Issekutz, B., and B. Paul (1968). Intramuscular energy sources in exercising normal and pancreatectomized dogs. Am. J . Physiol.215(1):197-204.
Jensen, M.D., M. Caruso, V. Heiling, and J.M Miles (1989). Insulin regulation of lypolysis in nondiabetic and IDDM subjects. Diabetes 38:1595-1601.
Jeukendrup, A.E., W.H.M. Saris, P. Schrauwen, F. Brouns, and A.J.M. Wagenmakers (1995). Metabolic availability of medium-chaim triglycerides coingested with carbohydrate during prolonged
exercise. J. Appl. Physiol.79: 756-762.
Kiens, B., B. Essen-Gustavsson, N.J. Christensen, and B. Saltin (1993). Skeletal muscle substrate utilization during submaximal exercise in man: effect of endurance training. J. Physiol.
(London) 469: 459-478.
Klein, S., E.F. Coyle, and R.R. Wolfe (1994). Fat metabolism during low-intensity exercise in endurance-trained and untrained men. Am. J . Physiol. 267 (Endocrinol. Metab E. 93304)-:E940.
Mackie, B.G., G.A. Dudley, H. Kaciuba-Uscilko, and R.L. Terjung (1980). Uptake of chylomicron triglycerides by contracting skeletal muscle in rats. J. Appl. Physiol.49: 851-855.
Martin, W.H., G.P. Dalsky, B.F. Hurley, D.E. Matthews, D.M. Bier, J.O. Hagberg, and J.O. Holloszy (1993). Effect of endurance training on plasma FFA turnover and oxidation during exercise.
Am. J . Physiol. 265 (Endocrinol. Metab E. 72088)-:E714.
Montain, S.J., M.K. Hopper, A.R. Coggan, and E.F. Coyle (1991). Exercise metabolism at different time intervals after a meal. J. Appl. Physiol.70(2):882-888.
Morgan, T.E., F.A. Short, and L.A. Cobb (1969). Effect of long-term exercise on skeletal muscle lipid composition. Am. J . Physiol.216:82-86.
Oscai, L.B., D.A. Essig, and W.K. Palmer (1990). Lipase regulation of muscle triglyceride hydrolysis. J. Appl. Physiol.69: 1571-1577.
Phinney, S.D., Bistrian, W.J. Evans, E. Gervino, and G.L. Blackburn (1983). The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal exercise
capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation. Metabolism 32:769-776.
Romijn, J.A., E.F. Coyle, L.S. Sidossis, A. Gastaldelli, J.F. Horowitz, E. Endert, and R.R. Wolfe (1993). Regulation of endogenous fat and carbohydrate metabolism in relation to exercise
intensity and duration. Am. J . Physiol. 265 (Endocrinol. Metab :E.3 2880)-E391.
Simonsen, J.C., W.M. Sherman, D.R. Lamb, A.R. Dernbach, J.A. Doyle, and R. Strauss (1991). Dietary carbohydrate, muscle glycogen, and power during rowing training. J. Appl. Physiol.
70: 1500-1505.
Terjung, R. (1995). Muscle adaptations to aerobic training. Sports Sci. Exc han8g(5e4), Number 1.
Terjung,R.L. B. G. Mackie, G.A. Dudley, and H. Kaciuba-Uscilko (1983). Influence of exercise on chylomicron triacylglycerol metabolism: plasma turnover and muscle uptake. Med. Sci.
Sports Exer 1c.5: 340-347.
Turcotte, L.P., B. Kiens and E.A. Richter (1991). Saturation kinetics of palmitate uptake in perfused skeletal muscle. FEBS Letter s279: 327-329.
Vukovich, M.D., D.L. Costill, M.S. Hickey, S.W. Trappe, K.J. Cole, and W.J. Fink (1993). Effect of fat emulsion infusion and fat feeding on muscle glycogen utilization during cycle exercise.
J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1513-1518.
Wolfe, R.R., S. Klein, F. Carraro, and J.-M. Weber (1990). Role of triglyceride-fatty acid cycle in controlling fat metbolism in humans during and after exercise. Am. J . Physiol. 258
(Endocrinol. Metab . 2:E1)382-E389.
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SportFlowing

Pubblicato: novembre 16, 2012 in general, training

Directly from Csíkszentmihályi’swords

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Flow is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity.

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In your daily activities follow the flow….

Some graphics in less or more detail on the concept

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Flow in the Sport

The experience of flow is still one of the least understood phenomena in sport. And yet it is one of the richest, most memorable experiences an athlete will ever know.Some call it a natural “”high.”” Others refer to it as being “”in a zone.”” Whatever it’s called, flow is an elusive and very sought-after psychological state that athletes, coaches, and sport psychologists have tried to understand, harness, and employ to their benefit since Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi first coined the term back in the early 1970s.

Read More buying this book:

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http://www.humankinetics.com/products/all-products/flow-in-sports

Dimensions of the Flow Experience

When a person’s skill matches the challenges of the situation the
quality of experience improves noticeably. Also, an activity that has relatively clear
goals and that provides rather quick and unambiguous feedback is a likely candidate
for flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1988). This allows the person who is involved in the activity
to know what needs to be done, and how they are doing. A game without rules or a
way to assess performance is impossible to play (Csikszentmihalyi 1988).
People who have experienced flow also mention that they are completely
immersed in the activity. All of their attention is so focused on the task at hand, that
they do not have anything left to become distracted with (Csikszentmihalyi 1988).
Also, there is a sense of control over the outcome of the activity, a distortion of time, a
loss of the awareness of self and everyday problems, and a feeling of transcendence, or
oneness with the activity (Csikszentmihalyi 1988).
When goals are clear, above-average challenges are matched to skills, and when
there is accurate feedback, a person becomes involved in the activity. When this occurs,
all attention is focused on what needs to be done. There is no room for anything else to
enter the conscious, or for the self to become self-conscious – the worry of how we look
to others. This is the negentropic experience that is called flow. Because it is so
rewarding, people will strive to replicate it as much as possible. From this tendency to
want to repeat a flow experience, emerges the teleonomy of the self. Also, this leads to
a selective process by the consciousness to seek out those experiences that provide
flow. This state of optimal experience is one that humans have developed “in order to
recognize patterns of action that are worth preserving and transmitting over time”
(Csikszentmihalyi 1988, p. 34).
The last stage of the flow experience involves the transforming the entirety of
one’s life into a single flow activity, with unified goals that provide a constant purpose
(Csikszentmihalyi 1991). Living one’s life from flow experience to flow experience may
be enjoyable during the actual flow experience, but one will probably still not be
assured of optimal experience. If enjoyment is not linked to an overall meaning or
purpose in life, one is still subject to psychic entropy, or chaos (Csikszentmihalyi 1991).
If a person invests all of her psychic energy to reach this goal, all the parts of
consciousness, as well as all actions and feelings, will be in harmony with each other.
These isolated flow experiences will mesh into activities that “make sense” in the
present, as well as the in view of the past and future. By doing this, it is possible to give
meaning to one’s entire life, and therefore achieve, as close is as humanly possible,
optimal experience (Csikszentmihalyi 1991).

Applications of Flow

Csikszentmihalyi began his research on flow out of sheer curiosity; in this sense
it was “pure” research (Csikszentmihalyi 1988). However, because so much time is
spent in the school and the work environment, these are the places of the most urgent
applications of flow (Csikszentmihalyi 1975). Often times, people are either bored or in
a high state of anxiety in these situations. One the first areas flow was practically
applied was education. In an unpublished doctoral dissertation out of the University of
Chicago, Mayers (1978), it was shown that the amount of enjoyment a student received
form a class was a better indicator of their final grade than scholastic achievement or
the student’s aptitude (Csikszentmihalyi 1988). From the teacher’s side of things, it was
shown by Phlihal (1982), another unpublished doctoral dissertation, that the more
attentive the students are in class, the greater the enjoyment a teacher receives from
teaching them (Csikszentmihalyi 1988).
Through personal communication with I. Vitanyi and M. Sagi, Csikszentmihalyi
(1988) learned that studies of industrial factory workers in Hungary found that bored
workers had a tendency to take unreasonable risks, and those who felt anxious
complained of imaginary illnesses. Also, those workers who enjoyed their jobs were
more personally satisfied and contributed more to the goals of the factory.
One of the largest areas flow theory has been utilized is in the context of play
and leisure (Csikszentmihalyi 1988). However, it has also permeated the field of
leadership and management training seminars (Csikszentmihalyi 1988) and in
determining consumer behavior (Bloch 1986). Csikszentmihalyi (1988) also describes
how flow has been applied in psychotherapy, in anti-drug campaigns, ways to deal with
juvenile delinquency, crime, vandalism, and social deviance. Other applications include
advertising research, the redesign of museums, and Davis (1988) wrote a book on how
to help audiences become involved in the theater. Csikszentmihalyi concludes that
anywhere the quality of human experience is an issue, flow becomes relevant.

Critique and Evaluation of Flow

Some critics argue that the flow theory is too much
of a Western concept, and that it applies more to men than women. By this, they imply
that it is too active and goal directed to represent a panhuman trait (Csikszentmihalyi
1988). Another early criticism is that it was too ethereal, bordering on mystical, for it to
be considered something worthy to be studied in the social sciences (Csikszentmihalyi
1988). Also, the flow theory as discussed in Csikszentmihalyi’s book, Flow – The
Psychology of Optimal Experience, only gives indicators of the flow experience, but does
not explicitly explain how to achieve this state.
Applying Littlejohn’s five criteria of scope, appropriateness, heuristic value,
validity, and parsimony, I will evaluate this theory, as well as expand on these criticisms
of the theory.

read more……

http://myweb.stedwards.edu/michaelo/2349/paper1/ConceptOfFlow.pdf

http://www.waltercarl.neu.edu/PDFs/flowpaper.pdf

http://academic.udayton.edu/jackbauer/CsikFlow.pdf

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